IMS Glossary of Terms
This glossary of terms provides definitions of terms commonly used throughout IMS leadership and developer communities. It is by no means an exhaustive list, but one carefully curated to facilitate shared understandings of IMS standards and interoperability.
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AccessForAll — AccessForAll® is a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. AccessForAll provides accessibility to users by matching user needs and preferences with the characteristics of available resources. These preferences include information about how the user can interact best with a computer, not convey information such as medical history. The user's need for specific kinds of content, display features, or control mechanisms are recorded. This information is used to select or request appropriate adapted content, configure a visual display for easy reading, or locate resources that match the user's control requirements. For more information, see IMS Global's Accessibility ProjectGroup Activities IMS App Note: Enhancing Accessibility through IMS Global Standards. Higher education institutional members may be interested in the Accessibility Innovation Leadership Network; for more information see Higher Ed Innovation Leadership Networks
Access for All Digital Resources Description — This IMS standard is a part of the IMS Access for All work. It is used to describe digital resources that can be adjusted to improve accessibility. This standard is focused on the description of the characteristics of the resource that affect how it can be perceived, understood or interacted with by users, including what sensory modalities are used in the resource; ways in which the resource is adaptable e.g., whether text can be transformed automatically; which methods of input the resource accepts; and what adaptations are available. Version 2 of the Access for All Digital Resources Description (AfA DRD) has been released as ISO Standard [ISO/IEC 24751-3:2008].
Access for All Personal Needs & Preferences — This IMS standard is a part of the IMS Access for All work. It defines a language for describing a learner’s needs and preferences with respect to how the learner can best interact with digital resources, including the configuration of assistive technologies. This standard is an important component of the IMS e-assessment standards: APIP and QTI. Version 2 of the Access for All Digital Personal Needs & Preferences (AfA DRD) has been released as ISO Standard [ISO/IEC 24751-2:2008].
AfA DRD — Abbreviation for Access for All Digital Resources Description, a standard developed by IMS Global.
AfA PNP — Abbreviation for Access for All Personal Needs & Preferences, a standard developed by IMS Global.
Accessible Portable Item Protocol® — IMS Global has developed two tightly connected standards that the assessment community worldwide is using to improve learning, Question and Test Interoperability® (QTI®) and Accessible Portable Item Protocol® (APIP®). APIP offers students access to digital assessments on the first day of class that is customized to their personal learning needs with minimal or no modifications necessary so that teaching can proceed without interruption and results are transmitted faster than with paper-based assessments. APIP is a solution for authoring and delivering test items to students in a way that supports the consistency of the delivery of every item. For more information see IMS Global's Accessibility Project Group Activities and the IMS App Note: Enhancing Accessibility through IMS Global Standards. Higher Education Institutional Members may be interested in the Accessibility Innovation Leadership Network; for more information see Higher Ed Innovation Leadership Networks.
Annotation Profile — This is one of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Annotation Profile models activities related to the annotation of digital resources. Creating a bookmark, highlighting selected text, sharing a resource, tagging a document, and viewing an annotation are modeled.
APIP — APIP is the abbreviation for Accessible Portable Item Protocol, a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. See the definition for the Accessible Portable Item Protocol for more information.
Assessment Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Assessment Profile models assessment-related activities, including interactions with individual assessment items. Caliper provides details on the learner's activities on Assessments (Tests) and Items (Questions) and counts the number of times an assigned resource is attempted.
Assessment Results Profile — The Assessment Results Profile for Gradebook Service standard is a formal subset of the IMS OneRoster 1.2 Gradebook Service. The OR 1.2 Gradebook Service, one service within the full OR 1.2 specification, provides the ability to manage the exchange of information about gradebooks in the form of results, lineItems, collections of lineItems (categories), and score-scales. It is also possible to exchange information about assessment activities in the form of assessment lineItems and assessment results. The Assessment Results Profile enables the exchange of detailed results that are assigned as part of some form of assessment activity, i.e., the assessment lineItems and assessment results parts of the OR 1.2 Gradebook Service.
Assignable Profile — This is one of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Assignable Profile models activities associated with the assignment of digital content to a learner for completion according to specific criteria. Caliper provides a generic assignable digital resource for describing these activities as well as a counting of the number of times an assigned resource has been attempted by the learner.
Assignment and Grade Services — Assignment and Grade Services is one of the Learning Tool Interoperability® (LTI®) services that make up LTI Advantage. This extension enables the passing of assignment results from the tool back to the LMS. Assignment and Grade Services enables faculty to sync grades and comments in third-party tools into a single place, such as the LMS grade book, which gives students and faculty a clearer picture of learning progress in one place. With Assignment and Grade Services you get multiple benefits including gradable assignments shared with a tool, numeric scores returned to LMS grade book, assessor's comments returned if provided, multiple results supported in a single exchange, and instructor override and history of attempts allowed. For more information, see the LTI Advantage Overview.
Badge Extensions for Education — Badge Extensions for Education, an IMS Global Learning Consortium initiative, augments the Open Badges 2.0 standard with important accreditation and assessment information to help employers and others better understand what was required to earn a badge. Badge Extensions for Education are two optional extensions—Assessment and Accreditation—to the Open Badges standard that allow an Open Badge to contain even more information about the achievement and issuing organization. First, the Assessment extension allows detailed information to be included pertaining to the assessment completed by the badge recipient. The Assessment extension describes the type of assessment (exam, performance, or artifact), whether it was a group assessment with a group evaluation, and information about how the assessment is scored. The Accreditation extension provides a way for the issuing organization to include information about related accreditation bodies, including their name and contact information, accreditation time period, and the accreditor's area of focus. For more information, see IMS Global's Digital Credentialing Initiative and Digital Credentials and Badges Project Group Activity. Higher Education Institutional Members may be interested in the Digital Credentials & CBE Innovation Leadership Network; for more information see Higher Ed Innovation Leadership Networks.
Caliper Analytics — Caliper Analytics® is a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. Caliper establishes a means for consistently capturing and presenting measures of learning activity; defines a common language for labeling learning data; provides a standard way of measuring learning activities and effectiveness; and leverages data science methods, standards, and technologies. Caliper provides the means to collect click-stream data from all digital resources that can be streamed into an institution's dashboard of choice to view student interaction with digital tools and inform instructional design to better understand the return on learning for their technology investments. For more information, see IMS Global's Education and Digital Analytics Initiative and Caliper Analytics Project Group Activity. Higher Education Institutional Members may be interested in the Learning Data & Analytics Innovation Leadership Network; for more information see Higher Ed Innovation Leadership Networks.
CASE — CASE® is the abbreviation for the IMS Competencies and Academic Standards Exchange® standard. See Competencies and Academic Standard Exchange for more information.
CASE Network — CASE Network is a breakthrough collaboration of leading states, districts, and edtech suppliers working to make the alignment of digital resources and edtech products dramatically easier for states and school districts at zero-cost. Through collaboration in the CASE Network, standards-issuing organizations, such as state education agencies (SEAs), can author and distribute official identifiers in CASE standard digital format via a free public registry. Learn more about CASE Network.
CAT — CAT is the abbreviation for Computer Adaptive Testing, a standard being developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. See the definition of Computer Adaptive Testing for more information.
CC — CC® is the abbreviation for Common Cartridge®, a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. See the definition for Common Cartridge for more information.
CLR — CLR is the abbreviation for the IMS Comprehensive Learner Record standard currently. See Comprehensive Learner Record for more information.
Common Cartridge — Common Cartridge® (CC®) is a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. Common Cartridge provides a way to package and exchange learning content and assessments. Common Cartridges can contain the actual content, or links to the content via Learning Tool Interoperability links, all with metadata, and curriculum standards metadata that describes the content. Cartridges can be developed once and loaded into multiple different learning environments. Thin Common Cartridge is a subset of the full Common Cartridge that contains only links and metadata about the content. Today’s digital content comes from a variety of resources making it difficult to integrate. Common Cartridge solves this problem by providing a standard way to package learning content so that it can be exported from one system and imported into another, providing educators and students with greater choice and flexibility to share and reuse content to personalize learning. For more information, see IMS Global's Common Cartridge Project Group Activity.
Competencies and Academic Standards Exchange — Competencies and Academic Standards Exchange® (CASE®) is a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. CASE is at the center of all the ways that learning standards impact the teaching and learning process. CASE is a framework for digitally transmitting learning standards, competencies, rubrics, and the relationships among sets of learning standards. By implementing CASE, educators have a more reliable way to ensure digital content is properly aligned to learning standards, and systems that are traditionally course-based can now have access to related competencies that are taught in a course, module, and topic. For more information, see IMS Global's CASE Project Group Activity.
Competency Framework — IMS Global's Competencies and Academic Standards Exchange® (CASE®) standard uses the term competency framework to refer to academic standards documents published by organizations such a state department of education and individual learning standards. See Competencies and Academic Standards Exchange for more information.
Comprehensive Learner Record - Comprehensive Learner Record (CLR) is a standard currently being developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. CLR is part of the family of IMS standards for digital credentials. The others, Competencies & Academic Standards Exchange (CASE) and Open Badges are compatible with CLR. Comprehensive Learner Records are a new generation of secure verifiable digital records for learners that contain all nature of learning experiences and achievements including courses, competencies, skills, co-curricular achievements, prior learning, internships, and experiential learning. For more information, see IMS Global's Digital Credentialing Initiative and Digital Credentials and Badges Project Group Activity. Higher Education Institutional Members may be interested in the Digital Credentials & CBE Innovation Leadership Network; for more information see Higher Ed Innovation Leadership Networks.
Computer Adaptive Testing — Computer Adaptive Testing is a standard for establishing interoperability between adaptive testing engines and assessment delivery platforms to adapt a test to students' understanding of the subject matter. For more information, see IMS Global's Assessment Project Group Activity and the Computer Adaptive Testing Project Group Activity.
Content Consumer — IMS Global’s interoperability design relies on two important roles: consumer and provider. Consumers and providers can be related to tools, content, or services. A Content Consumer ingests content. A Content Consumer would also typically be a learning management system.
Content Packaging - The IMS Content Packaging Standard describes data structures that can be used to exchange data between systems that wish to import, export, aggregate, and disaggregate digital content and courses. IMS content packages enable exporting content from one learning content management system or digital repository and importing it into another while retaining information describing the media in the content package and how it is structured, such as a table of contents or which web page to show first. This standard is focused on the packaging and transport of resources but doesn’t determine the nature of those resources. This is because the specification allows adopters to gather, structure, and aggregate content in an unlimited variety of formats. The IMS Common Cartridge standard is derived from this standard. This IMS standard is available as an ISO standard [ISO/IEC 12785].
Content Provider — IMS Global’s interoperability design relies on two important roles: consumer and provider. Consumers and providers can be related to tools, content, or services. A Content Provider hosts the content to be used in the Consumer. Examples of Content Providers include an externally hosted platform or server containing an open educational repository or "for-purchase" digital content.
Course Planning and Scheduling — The IMS Course Planning and Scheduling standard is an application profile of the IMS Learning Information Services (LIS) standard. Course Planning and Scheduling defines how systems manage the exchange of information used for the planning and scheduling of courses, the optimal use of facilities within an institution, and the corresponding timetables for people within the institution. Released as a Candidate Final document in December 2013, LIS was never made a Final Release document due to a lack of adoption by IMS members.
CPS — The abbreviation for the IMS Course Planning and Scheduling standard. See Course Planning and Scheduling for more information.
Deep Linking - Deep Linking is an LTI Advantage extension. This extension simpliﬁes the arduous task of selecting and adding links to content when developing a course, including deep integration to collections of content such as playlists and a table of contents. With Deep Linking you can select and add course content in a few clicks; add playlists and tables of content; enable links and other HTML content; and add pre-registered tools with a few clicks. For more information, see the LTI Advantage Overview.
Digital Ecosystem - The digital ecosystem is all the various platforms, applications, tools, and ways in which those systems are connected to pass data among the systems. By creating standard ways to transmit data between these platforms, applications, and tools, school districts can reduce costs, time, and increase the effectiveness of the teaching and learning cycle.
ePortfolio — IMS published the ePortfolio standard version 1.0 in June 2005. This standard enables the exchange of information about the learner, their learning activities and achievements, reflections on their experiences, goals, plans, etc. The ePortfolio is exchanged using an IMS Content Package-based format. The IMS Comprehensive Learner Record standard supersedes this standard.
ePub - ePub for Education is a profile for digital publishing targeted for an education audience. ePub focuses on defining accessibility features, learning objectives, and assessments which can be included in digital publishing. For more information see, ePub for Education.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) — XML is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. IMS uses XML as one of the binding data formats for the exchange of information. The IMS standards that use XML/XSD include Metadata, Common Cartridge, QTI/APIP, and OpenVideo.
Final Release - Specification documents and associated technical documents—developed in Task Forces and Project Groups—that are intended for external publication as IMS Global Learning Consortium documents that have been approved by the Technical Advisory Board (TAB).
Forum Profile - This is one of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Forum Profile models learners and others participating in online discussion forums. Forums typically encompass one or more threads or topics to which members can subscribe, post messages and reply to other messages if a threaded discussion is permitted.
General Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper General Profile provides a generic event notification for describing learning or supporting activities that have yet to be modeled by Caliper.
Gradebook Service - One of the core services in the IMS OneRoster standard. This service is used for the exchange of grade book information i.e. scores and results that have been awarded to students undertaking some form of assessed activity. A rich set of data can be exchanged about the Results, the set of Results for an assessment (LineItem) and Categories (collections of LineItems). The defined web service takes the form of JSON payloads exchanged by the communicating systems. At present this service is used extensively in the K-12/schools education sector.
Grading Profile - This is one of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Grading Profile models grading activities performed, typically by a person of software application. Grading a learner’s attempt of an assignment and generating a score is modeled as is viewing a result.
IEEE — The abbreviation for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
ILN — The abbreviation for Innovation Leadership Network. See Innovation Leadership Network for more information.
Innovation Leadership Network — An Innovation Leadership Network (ILN) is a collaborative group of institutional leaders working together on an area of common interest. There are K-12 and Higher Education ILN groups. These groups meet virtually and are open to Institutional Affiliate and Contributing Members.
Interactive Whiteboard — The Interactive Whiteboard/Common File Format standard defines a file format to hold content primarily designed to be viewed on a large display. Much of this content will be designed to be interactive, so objects can move around the page. The primary goal of this format is to establish a format that can be opened, edited, saved, and used across many whiteboard applications so that teaching content can be exchanged between establishments.
ISO/IEC — The abbreviation for the International Organization for Standards/International Electrotechnical Commission.
IWB — The abbreviation for Interactive Whiteboard, a standard developed by IMS Global.
Java Script Object Notation — JSON is an open standard file format that uses human-readable text to store and transmit data objects. Many web services are based on the exchange of JSON encoded messages. IMS uses JSON as one of the primary data binding formats for the definition of IMS APIs. IMS standards using JSON-based data exchange include Caliper, OneRoster, LTI Advantage, and CASE.
Learner Information Package — IMS published the Learner Information Package (LIP) standard version 1.0 in March 2001. The intent of this standard is to define a set of packages that can be used to import data into and extract data from an IMS compliant Learner Information server. The core structures of the learner information package are based upon: accessibilities; activities; affiliations; competencies; goals; identifications; interests; qualifications, certifications and licenses; relationship; security keys; and transcripts. The IMS Comprehensive Learner Record standard supersedes this standard.
Learning Design — The IMS Learning Design standard supports the use of a wide range of pedagogies in online learning. Rather than attempting to capture the specifics of many pedagogies, it does this by providing a generic and flexible language. This language is designed to enable many different pedagogies to be expressed. The approach has the advantage over alternatives in that only one set of learning design and runtime tools then need to be implemented in order to support the desired wide range of pedagogies. The language was originally developed at the Open University of the Netherlands (OUNL), after extensive examination and comparison of a wide range of pedagogical approaches and associated learning activities, and several iterations of the developing language to obtain a good balance between generality and pedagogic expressiveness. This standard was published in February 2003.
Learning Impact Awards — The annual Learning Impact Awards are conducted to recognize outstanding, innovative applications of educational technology to address the most significant challenges facing education. Any product or service provider, educational institution, or training provider that meets the competition’s eligibility requirements can enter the competition. Entries are assessed for their impact on personalized learning, institutional performance, and the digital learning ecosystem. Award winners are announced at the Learning Impact Leadership Institute.
Learning Impact Leadership Institute — The Learning Impact Leadership Institute is IMS Global's annual conference focused on digital innovation to improve access, affordability, and quality of education. This event held is held in May. At Learning Impact, meaningful progress to accelerate the deployment of an interoperable ecosystem is made together through a commitment to open standards.
Learning Information Services — The Learning Information Services (LIS) standard is the definition of how systems manage the exchange of information that describes people, groups, memberships, courses, and outcomes within the context of learning. It is a large set of services that include standard ways of exchanging data about people who are participating in learning; exchanging information for people attending courses; exchanging information about course structures; exchanging information about outcomes (grades) and providing processes for the transfer of large amounts of data. For more information, see Learning Information Services Background Information.
Learning Management System — The role of a learning management system (LMS) varies depending on an organization’s objectives, online training strategy, and desired outcomes. However, the most common use of an LMS is to deploy and track online teaching, learning, and training activities. Typically, digital content or links to digital content are uploaded to the learning management system, which makes them easily accessible for remote learners. In many cases, the LMS, through standards-based integrations, allows the development, management, distribution, and use of online content through third-party applications and tools. The LMS is sometimes referred to as a virtual learning environment (VLE).
Learning Tools Interoperability — Learning Tools Interoperability® (LTI) is a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. Learning Tools Interoperability(LTI) establishes a standard way of integrating rich learning applications (often remotely hosted and provided through third-party services) with platforms like learning management systems, portals, or other educational environments. LTI enables districts to securely connect their learning platforms and tools while reducing the time and significant costs associated with developing separate product integrations. LTI has several additional services and messages that can be used to extend it, including Assignment and Grade Services, Deep Linking and Class Provisioning. With LTI, institutions can maximize the effectiveness and capabilities of the teaching and learning ecosystem while saving time and money through a scalable and seamless approach to securely integrate multiple sources of digital content, learning tools, and assessment products into the digital learning environment. For more information, see IMS Global's Learning Apps and Tools Initiative and Learning Tools Interoperability Project Group Activity. Higher Education Institutional Members may be interested in the Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) Leadership Innovation Leadership Network; for more information see Higher Ed Innovation Leadership Networks.
LILI — LILI is an abbreviation for the annual IMS Learning Impact Leadership Institute. The preferred abbreviation is Learning Impact.
LIS — LIS is the abbreviation for Learning Information Services, a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. See the definition of Learning Information Services for more information.
Learning Object Discovery & Exchange (LODE) — This IMS standard aims to facilitate the discovery and retrieval of learning objects stored across multiple collections. In the context of this work, a learning object can be anything digital used for teaching, learning, or training. Learning objects can consist of simple assets (e.g., text, images, short videos) that can, in general, be rendered directly in a web browser, or more complex resources that usually consist of multiple components (e.g., text, images, simulations, videos, assessment exercises, etc.) that need to be combined in a precise way to provide end-users with a meaningful learning experience. Learning content specifications such as IMS Content Package and IMS Common Cartridge make it possible for such learning objects to be reused in different learning systems. This is achieved by packaging all the required components in a zip file together with a manifest describing how these components have to be rendered. As a result of this process where specifications have been applied, the content becomes more 'interoperable' and can be more easily exchanged and reused in learning platforms from different commercial vendors or in open-source learning (content) management systems that comply with the relevant content packaging specifications. The IMS LTI Resource Search standard has superseded this work, and so the IMS LODE standard SHOULD NOT be adopted.
LIP — The abbreviation for the IMS Learner Information Package standard.
LMS — The abbreviation for learning management system.
LODE — The abbreviation for the IMS Learning Object Discovery & Exchange standard.
LOR — The abbreviation for Learning Object Repository.
LTI Advantage — LTI Advantage, introduced in October 2017, is a package of key LTI extensions that enable institutions to move beyond first-generation learning architecture through deeper integration that ensures better teaching and learning experiences. LTI Advantage is a package of extensions that build on the core LTI standard (v1.1 or higher) to add new features that enable deeper integration of any tool with any LMS. LTI Advantage makes it easier for faculty to innovate and meet the unique learning needs of students, save time spent provisioning courses, and dramatically reduce integration times. Currently, the LTI Advantage extensions are Names and Role Provisioning Services, Deep Linking, and Assignment and Grade Services. For more information, see the LTI Advantage Overview.
LTI Resource Search — The LTI Resource Search standard defines how learning tools and learning platforms search learning object repositories (LORs), and other catalogs of learning resources, for learning objects. The goal of the Resource Search standard is a common way for students and teachers to be able to search resource providers, such as learning object repositories, from single sources or aggregated from multiple sources, within a learning object consumer such as a learning management system or another educational platform. For more information, see the LTI Resource Search Project Group Activity.
LTI Services — LTI services add functionality to core LTI to improve user experiences. These services can exist individually or all together depending on the type of product involved. Currently, the LTI Advantage services include Names and Role Provisioning Services, Deep Linking and Assignment and Grade Services. For more information, see the LTI Advantage Overview and Learning Tools Interoperability Project Group Activity.
Media Profile — This is one of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Media Profile models interactions between learners and rich content such as audio, images, and video. Implementers can leverage a number of media-related entities including audio, images, and video. It is also possible to represent the current location in an audio or video stream.
Metadata — The IMS Metadata standard is used to enable contextual and workflow information to be supplied about digital resources. It is derived from the IEEE Learning Object Metadata Standard [IEEE Std 1484.12.1 - 2002] and the information is exchanged in an XML format. The primary use, by IMS, of this standard, is in combination with the IMS Content Packaging and IMS Common Cartridge/Thin Common Cartridge standards. The embedded metadata information is used to provide the context for how the resources can be used, are organized and the processes used to create the resource.
Names and Role Provisioning Services — Names and Role Provisioning Services is an LTI Advantage extension. This extension enables sending a list of course participants and faculty defined groups to learning tools. For more information, see the LTI Advantage Overview.
OneRoster — OneRoster® is a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. OneRoster allows for the exchange of roster data between learning management systems and student information systems and learning tools. The data exchanged can include information about students, teachers, classes, grades and course materials. Institutions can save valuable instructional and administrative time with a low cost and scalable way to streamline the management and secure delivery of digital IDs, product use rostering, and transmission of assignment, scores, and grades across all digital resources. For more information, see IMS Global's Educational Data and Analytics and Digital Curriculum initiatives and OneRoster Project Group Activity.
Open Architecture — Open architecture is a way of designing technology systems that make adding, upgrading, and swapping components easy. IMS focuses on an open architecture that allows educational institutions to add and change components within their system. For example, this might be a student information system or learning management system or a content provider.
OpenAPI — The OpenAPI Specification (OAS) defines a standard, language-agnostic interface to RESTful APIs. It allows both humans and computers to discover and understand the capabilities of the service without access to source code, documentation, or network traffic inspection. When properly defined, a consumer can understand and interact with the remote service with minimal implementation logic. An OpenAPI definition can then be used by documentation generation tools to display the API, code generation tools to generate servers and clients in various programming languages, testing tools, and many other use cases. Many of the IMS standards have OpenAPI-based descriptions for the defined services, including CASE, OneRoster, and Comprehensive Learner Record.
Open Badges — Open Badges are portable image files that include information about accomplishments associated with the image. In other words, Open Badges contain detailed metadata about achievements. Who earned a badge, who issued it, and what does it mean? The data is all inside the badge. IMS is responsible for managing and advancing the Open Badges standard, which provides a secure framework to digitally capture and visually present achievements that are verifiable and portable to help learners differentiate their career-readiness or college-readiness in an increasingly competitive world. For more information, see IMS Global's Digital Credentialing Initiative and Digital Credentials and Badges Project Group Activity. Higher Education Institutional Members may be interested in the Digital Credentials & CBE Innovation Leadership Network; for more information see Higher Ed Innovation Leadership Networks.
Proctoring Services — This is an IMS standard to allow platforms used for assessment to integrate more easily with tools used for proctoring candidates taking assessments on those platforms. Using the Proctoring Specification a candidate can launch out from their assessment platform to the proctoring tool, initiate a proctored session with that tool, and be returned securely back to the assessment platform to take the assessment while being proctored by the proctoring tool. This standard also provides a method for proctoring tools to send messages to the assessment platform during the assessment to control a candidate’s progression including, if necessary, a facility to terminate the assessment. This standard is based upon LTI Advantage.
QTI — The abbreviation for the IMS Question and Test Interoperability standard.
Question and Test Interoperability — IMS Global has developed two tightly connected standards that the assessment community worldwide is using to improve learning. The first is QTI (Question and Test Interoperability) and the second is APIP® (Accessible Portable Item Protocol®). QTI enables the exchange of a wide range of rich questions and tests. QTI enables testing from formative quizzes to formal summative high stakes tests. And it allows all kinds of data to be transmitted between authoring tools, item banks, test construction tools, learning systems, and assessment delivery systems, and scoring administrative systems. QTI provides an easier way to administer fully accessible digital assessments, both formative and summative, that provides actionable data in a more timely manner to teachers, students and parents to inform personalization of learning. For more information see IMS Global's E-Assessment initiative and Question and Test Interoperability Project Group Activity. State and large district assessment leaders may be interested in participating in the State Assessment Leaders Innovation Leadership Network, for more information see the K-12 Innovation Leadership Networks.
RDCEO — The abbreviation for the IMS Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective standard. See Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective for more information.
Reading Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Reading Profile models activities associated with navigating and viewing digital textual content. Caliper provides several entities representing digital content, including a generic digital along with document, chapter, page, webpage, message, and frame.
Request for Proposal - Requests for Proposals (RFP) are documents that identify a need and ask organizations to respond by explaining their solution, its cost, and their qualifications. IMS Global provides numerous resources to help with creating RFPs, for more information see Require IMS Global Certification When Purchasing EdTech Products.
Resource List Interoperability — The IMS Resource List Interoperability (RLI) standard details how structured metadata can be exchanged between systems that store and expose resources. It is used to create resource lists and gather and organize those resource lists for educational or training purposes. A typical example of such a resource list is a reading list. This standard was published in July 2004. At present, there are no known implementations of this standard.
Resource Management Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Resource Management Profile models a person managing a digital resource.
Resources Service — One of the core services in the IMS OneRoster standard. This service is used to identify the set of learning and teaching resources that are required by a Class, Course, and/or User (the information about the Class, Course, and User would have been supplied using the IMS OneRoster Rostering Service). The defined web service takes the form of JSON payloads exchanged by the communicating systems. This service uses the identifier for the resource. The resource could be obtained using systems/tools/applications that use the IMS Common Cartridge/Thin Common Cartridge specification. At present this service is used extensively in the K-12/schools education sector.
Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective — IMS standard that provides a means to create common understandings of competencies that appear as part of a learning or career plan, as learning pre-requisites, or as learning outcomes. The information model in this specification can be used to exchange these definitions between learning systems, human resource systems, learning content, competency or skills repositories, and other relevant systems. This standard provides unique references to descriptions of competencies or objectives for inclusion in other information models. This work was adopted any the IEEE to become the IEEE Standard for Learning Technology-Data Model for Reusable Competency Definitions (IEEE 1484.20.1-2007). The original IMS Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective standard was published in October, and this has been succeeded by the IMS Competency and Academic Standards Exchange (CASE) standard (published in 2017).
RFP — RFP is the abbreviation for Request for Proposal. See Request for Proposal for more information.
RLI — RLI is the abbreviation for the IMS Resource List Interoperability standard.
Rostering Service — One of the core services in the IMS OneRoster standard. This service is used for the exchange of rostering information i.e. the enrollment of Students on Classes. A rich set of data can be exchanged about Users (inc. Students and Teachers) and their Demographics, Classes, Courses, Enrollments, Academic Sessions (inc. Grading Periods and Terms) and Orgs (inc. Schools). The defined web service takes the form of JSON payloads exchanged by the communicating systems. At present this service is used extensively in the K-12/schools education sector.
Search Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Search Profile models an actor—typically a learner—querying a resource for information. The profile provides a search event and a searched action for describing information retrieval activities. An optional search response entity can be employed to describe the query submitted by a user, as well as any information returned as a result of the search.
Security Framework — IMS has created, is creating, and will create, service-oriented and message-exchange interoperability specifications. These specifications recommend or require several different security patterns: for example, the use of OAuth 1.0 based message signing, OAuth 2 based authentication and authorization, and so forth. The IMS Security Framework defines a set of patterns for security that all of its specifications SHOULD use (only in special circumstances will IMS consider exceptions). These security patterns are based upon the appropriate standards and specifications published by other organizations: for example, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and its Requests For Comments (RFCs). The aim is to make use of the appropriate solutions and best practices already adopted in the IT sector as a whole. The security framework has three basic patterns for adoption: (a) use of the OAuth 2.0 Client Credential Grant mechanism to secure web services between trusted systems; (b) use of the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Code Grant mechanism to secure web services between systems where there is no pre-established trust relationship; and (c) use of OpenID Connect with JWT-based message exchanges to secure browser-instigated exchanges between a tool and the launching platform.
SensorAPI — SensorAPI® is a web service, a technical software, for implementing the standard, Caliper Analytics®, and simplifies the process of gathering learning metrics across learning environments. For more information, see IMS Global's Education and Digital Analytics Initiative and Caliper Analytics Project Group Activity. Higher Education Institutional Members may be interested in the Learning Data & Analytics InnovationLeadership Network; for more information see Higher Ed Innovation Leadership Networks.
Service Consumer — IMS Global’s interoperability design relies on two important roles, consumer and provider. Consumers and providers can be related to tools, content or services. A Service Consumer ingests the provided data from a Service Provider. Service consumers and providers are often similar kinds of applications such as learning management systems, student information systems, digital content libraries.
Service Provider — IMS Global’s interoperability design relies on two important roles, consumer and provider. Consumers and providers can be related to tools, content or services. A Service Consumer ingests the provided data from a Service Provider. Service consumers and providers are often similar kinds of applications such as learning management systems, student information systems, digital content libraries.
Session Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Session Profile models the creation and subsequent termination of the session established by a user interacting with an application/tool/system. The Session Profile can facilitate the capture of data about who is logging into the learning environment, and more importantly, which students are not logging in.
Shareable State Persistence — This IMS standard describes an extension to e-learning runtime systems that enables the storage of and shared access to state information between content objects. There is currently no prescribed method for a content object to store (arbitrarily complex) state information in the runtime system that can later be retrieved by itself or by another content object. This capability is crucial to the persistence of the sometimes complex state information that is generated by a variety of interactive content, e.g., simulations, and that is currently stored and retrieved in proprietary formats and through proprietary methods. This standard was published in July 2004. It is one of the standards used in the Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM).
Simple Sequencing —This IMS standard defines a method for representing the intended behavior of an authored learning experience such that any learning technology system can sequence discrete learning activities in a consistent way. The standard defines the required behaviors and functionality that conforming systems must implement. It incorporates rules that describe the branching or flow of instruction through content according to the outcomes of a learner's interactions with content. This standard was released to the public in March 2003 and is used to provide a functional extension to an IMS Content Package. It is one of the keystone standards in the Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM).
SIS — Abbreviation for student information system. The IMS standards OneRoster and Learning Information Services can be used to support such systems.
SSP — SSP is the abbreviation fo the IMS Shareable State Persistence standard. See Shareable State Persistence for more information.
Student Information System — A student information system (SIS) is a management information system used by educational institutions to manage student data. Student information systems provide capabilities for registering students in courses, classes, modules and programs (through rostering); documenting grading (through gradebooks), learner records, results of student tests and other assessment scores; building student schedules; tracking student attendance; and managing many different student-related data needs in the institution. In institutions with one or more learning management systems (LMS), there is a significant amount of information exchanged between the SIS and the LMS.
Survey Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Survey Profile provides a vocabulary for describing events associated with a respondent's participation in online surveys. A key use case involves instrumenting platforms that offer online surveys that explore the student learning experience, student engagement, learning activities, learning progress, and learning performance. The profile models a person—typically a respondent or a rater—participating in a survey in order to provide feedback on their learning and academic experiences.
Technical Advisory Board — The Technical Advisory Board (TAB) operates as a committee of the whole to review and approve the activities of its various Task Forces and Project Groups which are the primary working bodies of the TAB for initial specification chartering and development. The TAB contributes to the technical excellence of IMS solutions for education interoperability by providing advice and consultation on recommended technical directions; suggesting improvements and updates to IMS working group practices when appropriate; identifying and actively participating in resolving inter-specification issues or conflicts; identifying areas of overlapping responsibility or conflict between Project Groups; and helping staff technical research projects required to evaluate new technology options, by going beyond the resources on the technical working groups and leveraging their organization or network more broadly.
Thin CC — Thin CC is the abbreviation for Thin Common Cartridge, a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. See Thin Common Cartridge for more information.
Thin Common Cartridge — Thin Common Cartridge® (Thin CC) is a standard developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium. Thin CC is a standardized way to package and exchange Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) Links, Web Links and metadata. It is a subset of Common Cartridge. The content within a Thin CC is remotely hosted so that all that is transmitted in the Thin CC is metadata and information about how to access the content that is remotely hosted. See the Common Cartridge/Thin Common Cartridge Project Group Activity for more information.
Tool Consumer — IMS Global's interoperability design relies on two important roles, consumer and provider. Consumers and providers can be related to tools, content, or services. A Tool Consumer consumes or ingests the tool. A Tool Consumer typically would be a learning management system, virtual learning environment, or another learning platform.
Tool Launch Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Tool Launch Profile intends to capture the utilization of learning tools from a centralized location, such as an LTI Tool Platform (often an LMS). As such, it is distinct from the Caliper Tool Use Profile, also defined in this specification, which captures tool usage as reported by the individual tools themselves, i.e., decentralized capture.
Tool Provider — IMS Global's interoperability design relies on two important roles, consumer and provider. Consumers and providers can be related to tools, content or services. A Tool Provider provides or hosts the tool to be used in the tool consumer. Examples of Tool Providers include an externally hosted testing platform or servers containing an adaptive learning platform or a virtual lab simulation.
Tool Use Profile — One of the Metric Profiles defined in the IMS Caliper Standard. The Caliper Tool Use Profile models an intended interaction between a user and a tool. In other words, when a person utilizes an application/tool in a manner that the application determines to be its intended use for learning. An app that implements the Tool Use Profile can send events indicating such usage. The Tool Use Profile enables the gathering of basic usage information. It provides an easy way to get started with a base level of instrumentation by allowing the learning tool to determine its use. Any learning app can be instrumented using this profile to detect when a learner accesses the tool and uses it in the way it was intended.
VDEX — The abbreviation for the IMS Vocabulary Definition Exchange standard. See Vocabulary Definition Exchange for more information.
Vocabulary Definition Exchange — The IMS Vocabulary Definition Exchange (VDEX) standard defines a grammar for the exchange of value lists of various classes: collections often denoted "vocabulary." Specifically, VDEX defines a syntax for the exchange of simple machine-readable lists of values or terms, together with information that may aid a human in understanding the meaning or applicability of the various terms. VDEX may be used to express valid data for use in instances of IMS Metadata, IMS Learning Information Services, IMS Common Cartridge, etc., for example. In these cases, the terms are often not human language words or phrases but more abstract tokens. VDEX can also express strictly hierarchical schemes compactly while allowing for more loose networks of relationships to be expressed if required.
Web Services Description Language — WSDL is an XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly and then bound to a concrete network protocol and message format to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints (services). WSDL is extensible to allow the description of endpoints and their messages regardless of what message formats or network protocols are used to communicate. The binding used, primarily, is WSDL in conjunction with SOAP 1.1, HTTP, and MIME. The IMS standards that have services expressed using WSDL are Learning Information Services (LIS) and Resource List Interoperability (RLI).
WSDL — WSDL is the abbreviation for Web Services Description Language.
XML Schema Definition — XML Schema Definition is a World Wide Web Consortium recommendation that specifies how to describe the elements in an XML document formally. An XSD is used to verify that the content of an instance adheres to the definitions established for that object. IMS creates XSDs for those standards that will use XML as the data exchange format. These XSDs are used as part of the conformance and certification testing process. The IMS standards that use XML/XSD include Metadata, Common Cartridge, QTI/APIP, and OpenVideo.
XML — XML is the abbreviation for Extensible Markup Language.
XSD — XSD is the abbreviation for XML Schema Definition.